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VFD: Variable Voltage Inverter (VVI)

The VFD variable voltage inverter (VVI), also named Voltage Source Inverter (VSI), uses an SCR converter bridge to convert the incoming AC voltage into DC. The SCRs provide a means of controlling the value of the rectified DC voltage from 0 to approximately 600 VDC. The L1 choke and C1 capacitor(s) make up the DC link section and smooth the converted DC voltage. The inverter section consists of six switching devices. Various devices can be used such as thyristors, bipolar transistors, MOSFETS, and IGBTs. The following schematic shows an VFD that utilizes bipolar transistors. Control logic (not shown) uses a microprocessor to switch the transistors on and off providing a variable voltage and frequency to the motor.
vfd simple drawings

This type of switching is often referred to as six-step because it takes six 60° steps to complete one 360° cycle. Although the motor prefers a smooth sine wave, a six-step output can be satisfactorily used. The main disadvantage is torque pulsation which occurs each time a switching device, such as a bipolar transistor, is switched. The pulsations can be noticeable at low speeds as speed variations in the motor. These speed variations are sometimes referred to as cogging. The non-sinusoidal current waveform causes extra heating in the motor requiring a motor derating.
VFD voltage/current wave

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